Canine Eye Diseases

Medial canthal entropion in pugs

What is the medial canthal entropion of the eyelid?

Medial entropion is a phenomenon in which the eyelid at the inner corner of the eye (corner adjacent to the nasal region) is rotated inward. This results in direct contact of the hair of the rotated eyelid and corneal surface, which further results in corneal irritation, inflammation and/or ulceration. This is a common condition in brachiocephalic breeds of dogs, especially in Pugs, Pekingese, Shih Tzu, but also in brachiocephalic breeds of cats (Persian cat). (more…)

Third eyelid gland prolapse

Prolapse of the gland of the third eyelid

Prolapse of the gland of the third eyelid is a condition in which the lacrimal gland of the third eyelid falls out of its normal position, which causes its swelling and loss of secretory function. This condition can cause eye irritation, discomfort, decreased tear production, and formation of the corneal scar. The prolapsed gland of the third eyelid should not be removed but repositioned to its physiological location, and this is achieved by surgical intervention.

Prolapse of the gland of the third eyelid (arrows) is a common problem in dogs and cats. If left untreated, it can lead to dry eye disease and corneal damage.

Sudden onset of blindness of dogs

Numerous eye diseases, as well as systemic diseases, can cause sudden blindness in dogs. Fortunately, many of these conditions are reversible and are easily treated if diagnosed at an early stage of the disease. Any sudden worsening or loss of vision should be reported to an ophthalmologist as soon as possible.


Preparation for surgical treatment on the eye

These are short instructions for preparing you and your pet for surgery. The instructions include preparation steps before the surgery and treatment of the pet after the surgery.

Treatment of patients before surgery

  1. Please, do not feed your pet for 12 hours before the scheduled surgery. The water needs to be withdrawn 3 hours before the appointment.
  2. Please, do not give any oral medications that morning. All oral medications should be given to the patient the night before the procedure.
  3. Please, apply all the drops and ointments that were prescribed to the pet that morning before the operation.
  4. On the day of the surgery, bring all eye drops, systemic medications and a protective collar for your pet to the hospital, if you have one.
  5. For diabetic patients, please, bring insulin with you to the hospital. Patients should not be fed the morning before the procedure and should receive half of the dose of their regular morning dose of insulin.
  6. All surgical patients must have a recent laboratory analysis (complete blood count, biochemistry, urine analysis) before surgery. Please visit your veterinarian to have these tests done before surgery. If necessary, we can perform all tests in our hospital.
  7. All patients who have scheduled cataract surgery should have a dental examination and tartar cleaning 4 weeks before the scheduled surgery.

Treatment of patients after surgery

  1. The eyes should be carefully and gently cleaned 3-4 times a day with a clean cloth (or clean cotton balls) and warm water. This is necessary because the discharge accumulates and creates a crust of secretions on the eyelids and the skin around the eyes.
  2. The patient should wear a plastic, protective collar continuously until the wound healing process is complete. The collar should be washed once a day with mild hand soap, wiped thoroughly and only then re-applied. During this cleaning procedure, the pet must be supervised.
  3. All dogs after eye surgery must walk only with the use of ama during 2-4 weeks of surgery, they must not walk with a leash on the collar.
  4. After the operation, it is possible that your pet feels discomfort in the eyes and eye discharge is possible for 3-4 days. If the dog shows severe pain, or there is a bloody or green discharge from the eye or there is a change in eye color, you should contact an ophthalmologist.
  5. Prescribed medical therapy should be performed according to the ophthalmologist's instructions.

How to apply eye drops in dogs?

Instructions for applying local eye therapy in animals

Unfortunately, many pets are not very cooperative when it comes to the application of eye medications. That is why we always advise giving them a small reward in the form of a treat every time you treat them, which makes the pet much more cooperative during the next therapy.

To keep your pet from moving away from you, it helps to have a wall behind it while you are holding it firmly. If so, shake eye drops before use. With one hand, lift your pet's snout up and pull the upper lid until the whites become visible. With the other hand, apply one drop of the medication or the prescribed amount of ointment. After applying the medication, release the eyelid and reward the dog.

If it is necessary to put ointment, then first drip the drops and then apply the ointment. Wait at least 3-4 minutes between each medicine, ie. when you pour the drops, wait a few minutes and then apply the ointment.

You can wrap cats, small dogs and birds in a towel so that only the head protrudes


Glaucoma in dogs

Glaucoma and glaucoma therapy

Glaucoma is a combination of several pathological conditions of the eye, which progressively advance, leading to weakening of sight, and resulting in characteristic changes in the optic nerve, and are always associated with increased intraocular pressure. In veterinary medicine, it is one of the most common causes of vision loss.


Cataracts in dogs

What are the causes of cataracts in dogs?

Cataracts in dogs most often develop as a consequence of diabetes (D. mellitus). Almost 90% of diabetic dogs develop cataracts in the first 12 to 18 months of diseases onset. In many breeds of dogs, cataracts are hereditary (congenital cataracts). (more…)